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Properties and applications

Properties and application field

One of the most pressing problems of the development and very existence of humanity in the 21st century is the supply of high quality drinking water. As is well known, 97.5% of the world’s water is the salt water of the world ocean, and only 2.5% is fresh water. 70% of this water is the frozen water of polar ice and mountain glaciers; most of remaining water is stored in clouds, soil, or deep under the surface in water-bearing geological formations, and so is inaccessible for use. Only less than 1% of the world’s fresh water resources (around 0.007% of the total amount of the Earth’s water) are accessible for human use.



Considerable amount of fresh water being used for industrial and agricultural needs, its irrational use, and discharge of waste water into water reservoirs without sufficient preliminary treatment have resulted in water contamination, and presently most water bodies are classified as “dirty” or “very dirty” with biocenosis having degraded and biological productivity decreased. The degradation of ecosystem reduces self-purification capacity of water bodies and it can no longer serve as water source.

The solution of water supply problem requires new scientific approaches, development of new reagents and water treatment technologies, and large-scale investments.

The acute problem of high-quality drinking water production is application of eco-friendly reagents for water purification and development of workable and cost-effective water treatment technologies.

Titanium coagulant is an innovative highly effective chemical for drinking water production, industrial and municipal waste water treatment, as well as for other purposes of removing specific contaminants from water.

The fundamental background is supported by underlying concept of valence, confirming higher relative activity of titanium compared with aluminum and ferrum.

The superior removal capacity of titanium coagulant is accounted for by the high adsorption capacity of titanium containing phases in the product, which has significant technical and economic advantages over aluminum- and ferrum-based coagulants produced by world’s leading producers.

Titanium coagulant is a polymeric inorganic composition based on chloride containing compounds of titanium and aluminum used as a comprehensive effects reagent for natural water purification and treatment of industrial and colloid waste water. The chemical possesses coagulating and disinfectant properties and has a wide range of applications.

Titanium coagulant tests on natural water from different reservoirs confirmed technological, economic, and environmental advantages of the new reagent over widely used coagulants.
Technological advantages of titanium include higher effectiveness of removing heavy metals, organic compounds, microorganisms, and bacteria from water, and faster flocculation, sedimentation, and sludge utilization.

Economic advantages consist in lower unit consumption of reagents (titanium coagulant and chlorine), higher productivity of water treatment plants, as well as in lower operational costs.

Environmental advantages are that titanium coagulant is eco-friendly and safe for human health. Titanium coagulant application results in smaller amount of harmful organochlorines formed with no discharge of aluminum hydroxide which is difficult to filter and almost impossible to recycle.

Titanium coagulant
Purposes

Purifying drinking and household water as well as industrial water and increasing water quality to the required standards, treating industrial and municipal waste water, and other water purification purposes, including removal of specific contaminants.

Structure

Titanium coagulant is a polymeric composition based on titanium and aluminum compounds, which consists of titanium and aluminum hydroxides, chlorides, and oxy-hydrochlorides.

Form

White fine powder with low bulk density, hygroscopic. When mixed with water forms suspension.

Principle of effect

Titanium compounds contained in the coagulant are an active element of the reagent. When interacting with water they form developed structures of particles cohesion with a great number of adsorbing centres and micropores that sorb suspended elements, organic compounds, bacteria, ions (compounds) of various metals (including heavy metals), radionuclides, etc.

As a result of interaction with water, aluminum compounds contained in the coagulant destabilize colloidal particles and form fine-grained sediment which is drawn to the adsorption centres formed by titanium compounds. The exceptional sorbing properties of titanium coagulant bring about the formation of larger and heavier flocs with their further sedimentation.

Special features

For selective sedimentation of certain classes of water contaminants and better sorption, there is a special technology of producing a required variation of titanium coagulant by means of changing the structure of the composition and the conditions of synthesis.

Advantages

Titanium coagulant is an effective drinking water purification chemical. It is superior to most of the competing products both in so far as economic parametres are concerned (direct and indirect chemical and operational costs), and in the quality of purified water. Titanium coagulant possesses strong coagulation capacity, which is accounted for by its capacity to form polymeric structures in water. It shows high speed of flocculation and sedimentation. In some cases, application of certain doses of titanium coagulant allows abandoning the use of flocculants. Application of the reagent in combination with correctly chosen flocculant increases the economic effectiveness of titanium coagulant due to reduction in the required dosage.

Titanium coagulant is equally effective across a wide range of pH. Water treatment with titanium coagulant does not require application of pH level stabilizers (pH level is the same in purified water).

Titanium coagulant allows reducing the dosage of chlorine or abandoning chlorination, which is known to cause the formation of carcinogenic organochlorine compounds that cannot be completely removed at further purification stages.

The reagent effectively removes organic solids, other organic compounds, including those of ionogenic type.

The possibility of harmful organochlorines formation in purified water is reduced to a minimum. Ions of metals, heavy metals included, are effectively removed due to active adsorption.
The concentration of residual titanium and aluminum in purified water is ten or more times lower than maximum allowed.

Titanium coagulant is effective at low water temperature.

The disinfecting properties of titanium coagulant widen the range of its applications.

The dosage of disinfecting reagents is reduced (titanium coagulant removes bacteria).

Titanium coagulant removes various microorganisms improving such water quality parametres as total bacterial count, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, glucose-positive coliforms, Escherichia coli, Ps. Auruginosa, more effectively than aluminum polyoxychloride. The quality of water purified with titanium coagulant meets the EU requirements for such parametres as total coliforms, glucose-positive coliforms, and thermotolerant coliforms.

There is no reactivation of microorganisms (increase of the amount of microorganisms in water purified with titanium coagulant within 24 hours after treatment).

Environmental advantages are that titanium coagulant is eco-friendly and safe for human health.

Titanium coagulant forms no hazardous transformation products.

Titanium coagulant has no irritating effect on skin or mucous membranes.

Studies and tests

  • 2006. Laboratory scale studies on removal of enteric viruses from water by means of titanium coagulant application. Studies carried out by: Pasteur Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Federal Service of Surveillance for Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, St. Petersburg.
  • 2007. Laboratory scale studies of titanium coagulant application as disinfectant. Studies carried out by: Pasteur Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Federal Service of Surveillance for Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, St. Petersburg.
  • 2009. Studies of the effectiveness and safety of titanium coagulant applied for water purification and disinfection. Studies carried out by: State Institution A.N. Sysin Research Institute for Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow.
  • 2009. Studies of titanium coagulant effectiveness, safety, and competitiveness. Studies carried out by: National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
  • 2009-2014. Laboratory and industrial scale tests in water treatment and industrial facilities aimed at the estimation of titanium coagulant effectiveness in different conditions and its further implementation in many Russian cities: Tyumen, Astrakhan, Rostov-on-Don, Samara, Usinsk, Ezhva, and others.

Documents and certificates

  • Technical Specifications ТУ 2163-002-87707082-2013 “Titanium Coagulant” dated 01 November 2013.
  • Expert’s Conclusion No. 3/74-06 dated 08 August 2006 following the results of the expert examination of the serial product “Titanium Coagulant”. Issued by State Institution A.N. Sysin Research Institute for Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
  • Certificate No. 153.39.RU.245810.04823.09.12 dated 14 September 2012 for application of chemical product in oil production and transportation processes. Issued by Autonomous Non-Profit Organization State Centre for Certification and Standardization “Neftepromkhim”, the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
  • Certificate of conformity No. ТЭК RU.ХП25.Н04424 dated 14 September 2012 of the product “Titanium Coagulant”. Issued by Fuel and Energy Complex of Autonomous Non-Profit Organization State Centre for Certification and Standardization “Neftepromkhim”, the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
  • Certificate of conformity No. 03902 dated 30 January 2013, confirming that the quality management systems related to titanium coagulant production comply with the requirements of GOST ISO 9001-2011 (ISO 9001:2008). Issued by the Federal Agency on Technical Regulation and Metrology.

Full name

Titanium coagulant (composition consisting of titanium and aluminum hydroxides, chlorides, and oxy-hydrochlorides).

Form

Loose fine powder with low bulk density, hygroscopic. The colour of the powder is white or ranges from light yellow to light grey.

Basic properties

Titanium oxide mass fraction, %

12 ±2

  Aluminum oxide mass fraction, %

47 ±8

  Volume weight, g/cm3

0.80 ±0.1

Quality

Titanium coagulant conforms to sanitary requirements SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01 “Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for the quality of water in centralized drinking water supply systems. Quality control”, No. HN 2.1.5.1315-03 “The occupational exposure limit for chemical substances contained in water bodies used for household and drinking, and domestic-recreational purposes”.

Contacting materials

Materials which come in contact with the treatment solution of titanium coagulant must be made of plastic (polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, fluoropolymer, etc.), reinforced polyester glass fibre, stainless steel, enameled metal, titanium, gummed or acid-proof steel, teflon-coated material.

Recommendations on preparing and applying treatment solution

The treatment solution of titanium coagulant is suspension. At the time of dosing the treatment solution must be homogeneous. It is achieved by means of stirring the suspension during preparation immediately before the dosing.

For best results, it is recommended to use a 30% treatment solution (reagent-to-water mass ratio being 3 to 7).

Table of conversion between the dose of undiluted titanium coagulant (TC) and the treatment solution dose

Dose of undiluted TC, mg/dm3

Dose of 30% TC solution, cm3/dm3

5

0.015

10

0.035

20

0.070

30

0.100

40

0.130

50

0.17

Safety requirements

Titanium coagulant is fire-safe and non-explosive. In accordance with GOST SSBT (Occupational Safety Standards System) 12.1.005-76 it belongs to Hazard Class 4 (i.e. Safe). When dealing with the reagent it is necessary to wear a mask or glasses, rubber gloves, and other personal protective equipment.

Packaging and transporting

Titanium coagulant is packed in plastic bags or multiwall paper bags for 30 kg each with an internal laminated layer, or in polypropylene big bags.

Transportation must be carried out in covered vehicles or in containers according to transportation rules for each of this means of transport. The product must be packed in the manufacturer’s package.

When transported, loaded, discharged, and stored titanium coagulant must not be exposed to dampening or soiling. Loading and discharging must be carried out with full compliance with the safety requirements of GOST 12.3.009.

Coagulant is stored in covered, dry, ventilated warehouses on damp-proof pallets or shelves.

Combined storage and transportation with alkali is prohibited.

Storage conditions and shelf life

Titanium coagulant must be stored in a dry place. The shelf life is 2 years from the production date.